The scents we feel in the wine depend on the presence of volatile odorous substances, belonging to different chemical families. The criterion that is used to identify these smells is the simplest and oldest, or by analogy, that is, by similarity with the smells of flowers, fruits, spices or other products, food and not, known. These associations are not arbitrary: by means of microanalysis processes, the actual constituents of perfumes designated by analogy have actually been identified in the wine. Today we have classifications by which we have tried to classify the smells commonly found in the wines: for example the scent of floral includes the scents of Hawthorn, rose, iris, acacia, geranium, orange blossom, jasmine, broom, Linden That of vegetable the scents of grass, chopped hay, mint, sage, humus, dead leaves; To fruity scents of apricot, pineapple, raspberry, blackberry, plum, pear, lemon exotic fruits etc…
Recognizing the nature of the scents of wine
The age of wine. In principle the following rule is valid: During the evolution of the wines the aromas follow an order, which in some way reflects a hierarchy of the natural world. Light and fresh aromas of flowers first, then fresh fruits, turning towards hints of ripe fruit and jam, after dried fruits. As the ripe wine can dominate the intense vegetal perfumes and those of the sweet spices to arrive, in the aged wines, with bouquet where the dominant notes are given by spicy, balsamic scents, of roasting, of dried flowers, of wood.
Whites and Reds. As for the differences between the scents of white and red wines, it is worth a general rule that can have exceptions: it is often noted that the aromas of white and yellow flowers dominate in white wines, those of red flowers in red wines. Equally, in whites prevail the scents of the fruits with light pulp (from peach to apricot), in the Reds the scents of the fruits with red flesh (from the cherry to the small berries). The white young wines evoke more the white flowers (hawthorn, flower of Vine…). The complex white wines, the yellow flowers (lime, acacia, broom…), which are added the fruits (almond, hazelnut, peach). The young red wines have a fruity character (red and forest fruits). The ripe red wines instead lose progressively the fresh fruity and the spices, the liquorice, the brushwood appear. The aged red wines acquire animal, balsamic and roasting scents.